AP Art History
Art of the High Renaissance
|Introduction - IIn French, Renaissance means 'new birth'. Renaissance, comes from the Latin word rinascere, which means 'to be reborn'. During the 16th century, Humanism underwent a radical shift as more scholars began to investigate the world around them. The influential writings of Martin Luther (1483-1546) led to the establishment of Protestant churches in Northern Europe. The development of the printing press made books accessible, literacy widespread and ideas exchanged. Also, as travel around Europe became safer and easier, many artists switched to oil on canvas instead of frescoes so their work could be transported and installed anywhere.|
Timeline considered to be between 1495-1520 (the death of Raphael)
c1490 - Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man,
The term comes from the Italian word 'maniera', a word in the 16th century that suggests intellectually intricate subjects, highly skilled techniques, and beauty for its own sake. Figures painted in the Mannerism style often had elongated proportions, exaggerated poses, and ambiguous expressions.
1525 - Jacopo da Pontormo, Deposition, Oil
on panel, Capponi Chapel, Florence.
1575-84 - (Vignola and della Porta), Front of the Church of Il Gesu, Rome.
Matthias Grünewald took a very emotional and sympathetic look with his distorted figures, while his contemporary Albrecht Dürer has an intense observation of the natural world. Also, Landscape Painting became a new category of imagery after the Reformation. Hans Holbein the Younger became known for his stunningly detailed portraits, which were very influential of Van Eyck and the Early Northern Renaissance artists.
c1510-1515 - Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (Crucifixion), Oil on panel.
1500 - Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, Oil on panel.
c1525 - Albrecht Altdorfer, Danube Landcape, Oil on panel.
1532 - Hans Holbein the Younger, German Merchant, Oil on panel.
The Netherlands (which also included Holland and Belgium took many different directions in style. Hieronymus Bosch created worlds of fantastic (almost surreal) imagery, while Pieter Bruegel the Elder (who studied Bosch's work) created images of normal life. Both painters, however, painted vast, detailed scenes of multiple events occurring at once.
c1505-1515 - Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, Oil on panel.
1565 - Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters In The Snow, Oil on Panel.
1586 - El Greco ("The Greek"), Burial of Count Orgaz, Oil on canvas.